Subhas Chandra Bose was one of the most famous freedom fighters of India. He was a charismatic influencer of youth and earned the title of ‘Netaji’ by establishing and leading the Indian National Army (INA) during the struggle for independence. Although initially aligned with the Indian National Congress, he was thrown out of the party due to differences in ideology. He sought help from the Nazi leadership in Germany and the Imperial Army in Japan during World War II to overthrow the British from India. After his sudden disappearance in 1945, different theories of different theories about the possibilities of his existence prevailed.
Full name – Subhas Chandra Bose,
Date of Birth – 23 January 1897,
Place of Birth – Cuttack, Orissa,
Father’s Name – Jankinath Bose,
Mother’s name – Prabhavati Devi,
Wife’s name – Emily Schenkle,
Daughter’s name – Anita Bose,
Education – Renshaw Collegiate School, Cuttack (Study up to 12th) Presidency College, Calcutta (Philosophy) Cambridge University, England,
political ideology – nationalism; communism, fascism-interested,
Political Association – Indian National Congress, Forward Bloc Indian National Army,
Died – August 18, 1945,
Died – August 18, 1945,
Birth and family life
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in Cuttack (Orissa) to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Subhash was the ninth child among eight brothers and six sisters. His father, Janakinath Bose, was a thriving and successful lawyer in Cuttack and received the title of “Rai Bahadur”. He later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council.
Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student. He did B.A. in Philosophy from Presidency College in Calcutta. He was deeply influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and was known for his patriotism as a student.In an incident where Bose thrashed his professor (EF Otten) for his racist remarks, the incident earned him notoriety as a rebel-Indian in the eyes of the government. His father wanted Netaji to become a civil servant and hence sent him to England to appear in the Indian Civil Services Examination. Bose was placed fourth with the highest marks in English but his urge to participate in the independence movement was intense and in April 1921, he resigned from the prestigious Indian Civil Service and returned to India. In December 1921, Bose was arrested for organizing a boycott of celebrations to mark the visit of the Prince of Wales to India.
During his stay in Berlin, he met Emilie and fell in love with Emilie Schenkel, who was of Austrian descent. Bose and Emily were married in a secret Hindu ceremony in 1937, and Emily gave birth to a daughter, Anita, in 1942. Shortly after the birth of his daughter, Bose returned to India from Germany in 1943.
Association with the Indian National Congress
Initially Subhas Chandra Bose worked under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das, an active member of the Congress in Calcutta. It was Chittaranjan Das who, along with Motilal Nehru, left the Congress and founded the Swaraj Party in 1922. Bose considered Chittaranjan Das as his political mentor. He himself started the newspaper ‘Swaraj’.Das’s newspaper Forward and served as the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation during Das’s tenure as mayor. Subhash Chandra Bose played an important role in sensitizing the students, youth and laborers of Calcutta. He emerged as a charismatic and firebrand youth icon in his zealous wait to see India as an independent, federal and republican nation.He was admired within the Congress for his great ability in the development of the organization. He had to go to jail several times during this time for his nationalist activities.
Dispute with Congress
During the Guwahati session of the Congress in 1928, differences emerged between the old and new members of the Congress. The younger leaders wanted “complete self-rule and no compromise” while the senior leaders were in favor of a “dominant position for India within British rule”. The differences between the moderate Gandhi and the aggressive Subhas Chandra Bose were driven to disproportionate proportions, and Bose decided to resign from the party in 1939. He formed the Forward Bloc in the same year.
Formation of Azad Hind Fauj (INA)
Bose opposed the Congress’ decision to support the British during the Second World War. In order to start a mass movement, Bose called upon the Indians for their full participation. His call “Give me blood and I will give you freedom” was met with an overwhelming response and the British immediately imprisoned him. In prison he announced hunger-surrender.When his health deteriorated, the authorities released him for fear of violent reactions, but placed him under house arrest.
In January 1941, Subhas made a planned escape and reached Berlin, Germany via Peshawar. The Germans assured him of their full support in his endeavours and he also gained allegiance to Japan.He made a revolutionary journey eastwards and reached Japan where he commanded over 40,000 Indian soldiers recruited from Singapore and other Southeast Asian regions. He named his army as the Azad Hindi Fauj/Indian National Army (INA) and led it to capture the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the British.After which it was re-launched as Swaraj Dweep. Azad Hind Fauj started working in the occupied areas.
The INA or Azad Hind Fauj made its way towards India from the Burma border and on 18 March 1944, set foot on Indian soil. Unfortunately the tide of world war turned and the Japanese and German forces surrendered. Azad Hind Fauj had to retreat.
love marriage in austria
In 1934, when Subhash was staying in Austria for his treatment. At that time, he needed an English typist to write his book. One of his friends introduced him to an Austrian woman named Emilie Schenkl (An: Emilie Schenkl). Emily’s father was a renowned veterinarian.Subhash was attracted to Emily and they naturally fell in love. In view of the strict laws of Nazi Germany, both of them got married in the Hindu system in 1942 at a place called Bad Gastein. Emily gave birth to a daughter in Vienna. Subhash saw her for the first time when she was barely four weeks old. They named her Anita Bose. When Subhash died in the so-called plane crash in Taiwan in August 1945, Anita was a quarter-years-old. Anita is still alive. Her name is Anita Bose Pfaff (Anita Bose Pfaff). Anita Faf sometimes also comes to India to meet her father’s family members.
Resignation from the post of Congress President
In 1938, Gandhiji had chosen Subhash for the post of Congress President, but he did not like Subhash’s methodology. During this time, the clouds of World War II were over in Europe. Subhash wanted that by taking advantage of this difficulty of England, India’s freedom struggle should be intensified. He had also started taking steps in this direction during his presidential tenure, but Gandhiji did not agree with it.
In 1939, when the time came to choose a new Congress President, Subhash wanted someone who would not bow down to any pressure in this matter. since no one is volunteering so, subhash decided to be Congrees President. But Gandhi wanted to remove him from the post of president. Gandhi chose Pattabhi Sitaramayya for the post of presidentPoet Rabindranath Thakur wrote a letter to Gandhi requesting him to make Subhash the president. Scientists like Prafulchandra Rai and Meghnad Saha also wanted to see Subhash again as the president. But Gandhiji did not listen to anyone in this matter. Years later, on finding a deal in Congress was elected to the presidency.
Everyone understood that when Mahatma Gandhi supported Pattabhi Sitaramayya, then he would easily win the election. But actually Subhash got 1580 votes and Sitaramayya got 1377 votes in the election. Despite Gandhiji’s opposition, Subhashbabu won the election by 203 votes.But the talk did not end with the result of the election. Gandhiji described the defeat of Pattabhi Sitaramayya as his defeat and told his colleagues that if he did not agree with the methods of Subhash, he could withdraw from the Congress. After this 12 out of 14 members of the Congress Working Committee resigned. Jawaharlal Nehru remained neutral and Sharadbabu remained alone with Subhash.
The annual Congress session of 1939 was held in Tripuri. At the time of this convention, Subhashbabu had become so ill with high fever that he had to be brought to the convention by lying on a stretcher. Gandhiji himself also did not attend this session and his companions also did not give any support to Subhash. After the convention, Subhash tried hard for a settlement, but Gandhiji and his companions did not listen to him.The situation became such that Subhash could not do any work. Finally, fed up with it, on 29 April 1939, Subhash resigned from the post of Congress President.
accident and death news
After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Netaji needed to find a new way. He had decided to seek help from Russia. On 18 August 1945, Netaji was on his way to Manchuria by plane. During this journey he went missing. After this day he was never seen by anyone.
On 23 August 1945, Tokyo Radio reported that Netaji was arriving in Saigon by a large bomber when his plane crashed near Taihoku Airport on 18 August. Japanese General Shodei, Pilot and a few others with him on the plane were killed.Netaji was seriously burnt. He was taken to Taihoku Military Hospital where he died. According to Colonel Habibur Rahman, his last rites were performed in Taihoku itself. In mid-September, his ashes were collected and kept in the Rankoji Temple in Tokyo, the capital of Japan. According to a document obtained from the National Archives of India, Netaji died on 18 August 1945 at the Taihoku Military Hospital at 9:00 pm.
After independence, the Government of India appointed commission twice in 1956 and 1977 to investigate this incident. Both the times the result was that Netaji was martyred in that plane crash itself. In 1999, the third commission was formed under the leadership of Manoj Kumar Mukherjee. In 2005, the Taiwanese government told the Mukherjee Commission that no plane had ever crashed on Taiwanese land in 1945.
Where Netaji went missing on 18 August 1945 and what happened next has become the biggest unanswered mystery in Indian history.
There is no dearth of people claiming to have seen and met Netaji even today in different parts of the country.From Gumnami Baba of Faizabad to Raigarh district in the state of Chhattisgarh, many claims have been made regarding the existence of Netaji, but the authenticity of all these is questionable. In Chhattisgarh, the matter of the existence of Subhash Chandra Bose went to the state government. But the State Government, considering it not worthy of interference, closed the file of the case itself.
Ideology of Subhas Chandra Bose
Bose’s letters prove his faith in democracy in independent India. Bose’s primary ideology was always the independence of his homeland, whether with the help of fascists like Mussolini or Hitler.
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